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Реферат Country Study, KAZAKHSTAN



Текст реферата Country Study, KAZAKHSTAN

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pensions, various types of allowances have also been established to
help support families with children. Some examples include: onetime
payments at child birth, single mother support, and support to mothers
with juvenile invalids. In addition, senior citizens are eligible to
live in boarding homes in which care is provided by the state.
In the former Soviet Union these types of state support programs came
in many different forms such as discounts, sanitarium treatment,
subsidies, and travel transport. These privileges were granted
irrespective of the citizens income. Today, increasing difficulties in
the financing system have brought about a crisis. In such a situation,
some pivotal points of social protection have emerged that require
thought and consideration.
If the economy is going to get back on track, child and family
allowance expenditures must be reduced. This should be done by
targeting only those groups that are in direct need of the transfers.
In the future, a more rigorous testing system must be used in order to
establish and monitor the money transfers correctly. In the shortrun,
the allowances must be kept at a flatrate benefit while reducing their
value in real terms.
The Ministry of Social Welfare of the Population must identify a
strategy for reform of the social safety net. Currently, they have
come up with a three stage system that will work to improve the
current system over the next three years. First, they must plan the
provisions to target the most vulnerable lowincome families and to
maintain a base level of social services. The intention is to
redistribute the available resources in order to provide assistance to
the families that need it the most. This will help to reduce the
social pressures on the progress of economic reform. The second stage
envisages more active participation of society based on the principles
of self support. This will be possible on the basis of a compulsory
social insurance system and the development of numerous nonstate
voluntary funds. In the longer term, the plan will be to decentralize
main expenditures for social support from the national to the regional
level, from the state budget to the private savings of citizens, and
from budgetary financing to social insurance. In turn, this will lead
to the end of inequities apparent in the present system of social
protection. When this occurs, social insurance will have a reliable
financial base and be able to satisfy a wide range of citizenнs
individual needs.
Intergovernmental Fiscal Relationships
There are essentially two levels of government in Kazakhstan: central
and oblast local governments. Responsibilities for stabilization
policy are assigned to the central government; the centralized system
provides service standards to each locality, applies equal taxes, and
facilitates regional and personal redistribution.
Kazakhstan government attempts to simultaneously restructure its
economic system, protect the wellbeing of its citizens,
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