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Реферат Mark Twain (1835-1910) (english)



Текст реферата Mark Twain (1835-1910) (english)

Mark Twain (1835-1910 )
Pseudonym of Samual l anghorn Clemens
Early life
Susy, Mark Twain’ s daughter began the biography of her father
when she was fourteen years old. She begins in this way:
“We are a very happy family. We consists of p apa, Mama, Jean,
Clara and me
It’ s a Papa I am wrihting about.
Papa has beautiful gray hair, not any too thick or any too long, but
just right, kind blue eyes and a small moustache. In short he is an
extraordinary finelooking man. He is a very funn y one. He does tell
perfectly delightful stories. Clara and I used to sit on each arm of
his chair and listen while he told us stories.”
And that, in 1885, was the family of Mark Twain, whose real name was
Samual l anghorn Clemens.
Sam was born in a very small town called Florida in Missouri. The
village contained a hundred people and Sam “increased the
population by 1 per cent.”
Most of the houses were of logs. Beyond and beyond, shining in the
sun , t he Mississippi roled to the distant sea.
The beside this river, Samual Clemens grew into his boyhood. He saw
negrous chained like animals for transportation to richer slave
markets to the South. Sam’ s father owned slaves. For a girl of
fifteen he paid twelwe dollars; for a woman of twentyfive – he
paid twentyfive dollars; for a strong negro woman of forty – he
paid forty dollars . All the negroes of his own age were good friends
of Sam. The young boy has always remember these sad things. Better
things he remembered also. He remembered below the village woods
“a heavenly place” where he played with the boys.
When he was four Sam’ s familly moved to Hannibal. Their in
1849 his father died. Before the funeral Sam promised to his mother to
be a better boy, to go to work , and care for her.
His first job
Sam soon had to live school and take a part time job as delivery and
errand boy for Hannibal’ s newspaper; serving at times as
grocer’ s clerk, blacksmith’ s helper and
bookseller’ s assistant.
Always hungry, poor Sam filched onions and potatoes from the cellar,
cooking them over the printingoffice stove.
Sam decided he had had enough of such an unhappy life and went to
work, as a “skilled printer of fifteen”, for his brother
Orion who managed a newspaper in Hannibal.
Here Sam began his career writing humorous scetches, published in a
comic weekly.
One night Sam was reading the diary of an Amazon explorer. He read
about painted Indians shoting their poisoned arrows at tigers, of
coloured parrots and agile monkeys dancing in the high trees. Sam was
enchanted. He made up his mind to go to the headwaters of the Amazon
and collect coco from coco bushes and make a fortune.
Here is what Sam learned about the coco leaves: “The leaf of
this plant is to the Indian of Peru what tobacco is to our laboring
classes is to the South.”
From the night on the Amazon fever burnt in Sam. But
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