Учебная работа по дисциплине Логистика

Реферат Mass media



Текст реферата Mass media

Mass media
Is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio, motion pictures,
and largecirculation newspapers and magazines. It refers to much more
than the journalistic aspects of the instruments of popular
communication. The mass media often function as the locus of social
control and the source of popular culture. They help create historical
events, teach values, and by virtue of the huge commercial enterprises
they represent, affect the viability of free societies.
There are five major fields of journalism: newspapers, news services,
periodicals, radio and television. Radio and television perform
information only briefly, but quickly. Newspapers include full reports
on different topics. News agencies provide them with the latest
information.
NEWS AGENCIES
News agencies are local, national, international, or technical
organizations that gathers and distributes news, selling theyr
services to newspapers, periodicals, and broadcasters; reports are
also available as part of some online computer services. The major
news organizations in the U.S. are: the Associated Press (AP), founded
in 1892 as the Associated Press of Illinois, which adopted its present
name in 1900; the United Press Association, called the United Press
(UP), founded in 1892, which became an affiliate of the Scripps-Howard
newspaper chain; and the International News Service (INS), founded by
W.R. Hearst in 1906; in 1958 INS was merged with UP, forming United
Press International (UPI). Two major European news agencies are the
Reuter Telegram Company of London, founded in 1851 and known simply as
Reuters; and Agence France-Presse, founded in 1835 as Agence Havas of
Paris. Some countries have governmentowned and -controlled agencies.
News agencies transmit copy through the use of the telegraph,
telephone wires, underwater cables, and communications satellites.
Many offer their clients photographs, news analyses, and special
features.
NEWSPAPER
Newspaper is a publication issued periodically, usually daily or
weekly, to present information about current events. The Roman Acta
diurna (c.59 B.C.), posted daily in public places, was the first
recorded newspaper . The invention and spread of printing in the 15th
cent. was the major factor in the early development of the newspaper.
The first daily paper in England was the Daily Courant (1702). English
newspapers began to reach the masses in the 19th cent. Important
English newspapers of today are The Times of London (founded in 1785)
and the Manchester Guardian. One of the oldest continental newspapers,
Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, appeared in Germany in 1609; the Nieuwe
Tijdingen was published in Antwerp in 1616; and the first French
newspaper, the Gazette, was founded in 1631. Important newspapers of
the world today include Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Germany),
Figaro (France), Osservatore romano (Vatican), Asahi Shimbun (Japan),
and the Times of India (Delhi). The first newspaper to appear in the
American colonies was a
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