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Реферат Scotland (english)



Текст реферата Scotland (english)

Scotland
Scotland , administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain,
occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland
is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by the
North Sea; on the southeast by England; on the south by Solway Firth,
which partly separates it from England, and by the Irish Sea; and on
the west by North Channel, which separates it from Ireland, and by the
Atlantic Ocean. As a geopolitical entity Scotland includes 186 nearby
islands, a majority of which are contained in three groups—
namely, the Hebrides, also known as the Western Islands, situated off
the western coast; the Orkney Islands, situated off the northeastern
coast; and the Shetland Islands, situated northeast of the Orkney
Islands. The largest of the other islands is the Island of Arran. The
area, including the islands, is 78,772 sq km (30,414 sq mi). Edinburgh
(population, 1991, 421,213) is the capital of Scotland as well as a
major industrial area and seaport.
The Land and Resources
Scotland has a very irregular coastline. The western coast in
particular is deeply penetrated by numerous arms of the sea, most of
which are narrow submerged valleys, known locally as sea lochs, and by
a number of broad indentations, generally called firths. The principal
firths are the Firth of Lorne, the Firth of Clyde, and Solway Firth.
The major indentations on the eastern coast are Dornoch Firth, Moray
Firth, the Firth of Tay, and the Firth of Forth. Measured around the
various firths and lochs, the coastline of Scotland is about 3700 km
(about 2300 mi) long.
Physiographic Regions
The terrain of Scotland is predominantly mountainous but may be
divided into three distinct regions, from north to south: the
Highlands, the Central Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands. More than
onehalf of the surface of Scotland is occupied by the Highlands, the
most rugged region on the island of Great Britain. Consisting of
parallel mountain chains with a general northeasternsouthwestern trend
and broken by deep ravines and valleys, the Highlands are noted for
their scenic grandeur. Precipitous cliffs, moorland plateaus, mountain
lakes, sea lochs, swiftflowing streams, and dense thickets are common
to the Highlands, the most sparsely inhabited section of Scotland. The
region is divided in two by a depression, known as the Glen More, or
Great Glen, which extends from Moray Firth to Loch Linnhe. To the
northwest of this lie heavily eroded peaks with fairly uniform
elevations ranging from 610 to 915 m (about 2000 to 3000 ft). In the
Highlands southeast of the Great Glen the topography is highly
diversified. This region is traversed by the Grampian Mountains, the
principal mountain system of Scotland. The highest peak of the
Grampians is Ben Nevis (1343 m/4406 ft), the highest summit in Great
Britain.
To the south of the Highlands lies the Central Lowlands, a narrow
belt comprising only about onetenth of the area of Scotland, but
containing the
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